Outdoor Leadership : Theory and Practice


Bruce Martin, Christine M. Cashel, Mark Wagstaff, Mary Breunig
ISBN: 0736057315
ISBN13: 9780736057318
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Outdoor Leadership: Theory and Practice will help you
  • develop eight core competencies that are based on professional standards and are the foundation of successful outdoor leadership,
  • understand how to transform theory into practice through a framework that includes real-life chapter-opening stories and learning activities to help build leadership competencies, and
  • develop and demonstrate leadership competencies by creating a professional development portfolio that documents successful leadership experiences.
Outdoor Leadership: Theory and Practice is the foundational course text and professional reference for learning and developing outdoor leadership competencies. The authors, experienced outdoor leadership instructors who have worked in a variety of outdoor settings, outline the steps to mastering eight core competencies that not only help you develop leadership abilities but also help you meet current professional standards:
  • Foundational knowledge
  • Self-awareness and professional conduct
  • Decision making and judgment
  • Teaching and facilitation
  • Environmental stewardship
  • Program management
  • Safety and risk management
  • Technical ability
The book covers these competencies in a real-world context. Chapter-opening stories provide a framework for the chapter content, and learning activities and numerous examples from North America help you apply that theory and master each competency. In addition, you’ll be guided through a series of activities in developing and showcasing leadership abilities through a culminating professional development portfolio. Outdoor Leadership: Theory and Practice provides the foundational knowledge required of successful outdoor leaders. Part I discusses the concepts, history, and evolution of outdoor leadership, including the diverse natural and cultural outdoor settings in which leaders work. Part II covers the components of leadership theory with chapters focusing on personal development, group dynamics, facilitation of outdoor pursuits and interpretation, and judgment and decision making. There is also a chapter on values and ethics, which includes discussion of professionalism and moral development. Part III explores teaching and facilitation with discussions on behavior and development, group development, challenge course leadership, and experiential education. Part IV explores resource and program management with discussions on parks and protected areas, environmental stewardship, program design, safety and risk management, and expedition planning. Through its learning activities, its numerous practical examples, and its step-by-step portfolio development, Outdoor Leadership: Theory and Practice will help you improve your abilities as an outdoor leader.

About the Author

Bruce Martin, PhD, is an assistant professor in the School of Sport and Exercise Science at the University of Northern Colorado in Greeley, Colorado. He developed and implemented an accredited baccalaureate degree program in outdoor leadership at Sheldon Jackson College in Sitka, Alaska, and has five years of experience teaching both theoretically oriented and practically based outdoor leadership courses at the college and university level. He has worked as a camp counselor, professional river guide, and Outward Bound instructor. Martin is a member of the Wilderness Education Association, the American Canoe Association, and the Association for Experiential Education. He serves as the Rocky Mountain Region chair for the latter association. Martin is a whitewater kayak instructor trainer for the American Canoe Association, and he is a master educator for Leave No Trace, Inc. He also is the author of Wayside Attractions: The Negotiation of Aspirations and Careers Among African-American Adolescent Males in an Urban Alternative School. Christine Cashel, EdD, is a professor of leisure studies at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, Oklahoma. She has taught elementary, middle school, and college students for 33 years and has taught outdoor leadership courses for the Wilderness Education Association for 23 years. She is also a master educator for Leave No Trace, Inc. She regularly presents at various national conferences and has presented papers four times in Japan in the last six years. She is most proud of her students who have continued to inspire others through the power of the outdoors. Mark Wagstaff, EdD, is an associate professor in the department of recreation, parks and tourism at Radford University in Radford, Virginia. He has taught outdoor leadership and adventure education in the college setting for 13 years and has served as a professional river guide for more than 10 years. He has been an instructor for Outward Bound and Wilderness Education Association and has led outdoor adventures in Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Nepal. Wagstaff managed the outdoor program at Oklahoma State University for five years and is a master educator for Leave No Trace, Inc. He has developed curriculum and instructed for Wilderness Education Association and served as that association’s executive director for three years. He is also a member of the American Canoe Association and the Association for Experiential Education. Mary Breunig, MS, has been involved in outdoor and experiential education for 16 years. She spent 7 of those years leading outdoor wilderness trips year-round. Currently, Breunig is a PhD candidate in the educational studies program at Lakehead University in Thunder Bay, Ontario, where she teaches full-time in the School of Outdoor Recreation, Parks and Tourism. She teaches courses in outdoor leadership, outdoor education, and experiential education, in addition to a number of field-based courses. Breunig’s research interests include the study of integrated wilderness trip programs and issues of social justice in outdoor education. Her research examines the intersection of the fields of experiential education and critical pedagogy. She is co-editor of the Journal of Experiential Education. Breunig lives in a cabin in the woods with her husband, Tim O’Connell, and their dog, Ridge.

Table of Contents


Introduction: Building Core Competencies

Part I. Foundations of Outdoor Leadership
Chapter 1. The Journey Begins
What Is Outdoor Leadership?
Understanding Leadership in Outdoor Education and Recreation
Professional-Development Portfolio
Selected References

Chapter 2. History of Outdoor Leadership
Dude Ranches and Guide Services
Organized Camping Movement
Scouting Movement
Outward Bound Movement
Professionalization of Outdoor Leadership
Selected References

Chapter 3. Professional Development
Elements of a Profession
Places That Use Outdoor Leaders
Professional Associations
Professional Practice
Selected References

Part II. Outdoor Leadership Theory
Chapter 4. Theories of Leadership
History of Leadership
Early Leadership Theories
Transactional Versus Transformational Leadership
Contemporary Leadership Theories
Selected References

Chapter 5. Leadership in Practice
Leadership Qualities
Leadership Power
Leadership Styles
Leadership Models
Caring Leaders
Selected References

Chapter 6. Judgment and Decision Making
Decision-Making Process
Decision-Making Models
Decision-Making Methods
Decision Making and Leadership Styles
Selected References

Chapter 7. Values and Ethics
Values and Ethics in Outdoor Leadership
Six Stages of Moral Development
Ethic of Care and Ethic of Justice
Professionalism in Outdoor Leadership
Model for Ethical Decisions
Selected References

Part III. Teaching and Facilitation
Chapter 8. Understanding Facilitation
Goals of Facilitation
Challenges in Facilitation
Developing Facilitation Skills
Selected References

Chapter 9. Facilitating Personal Development
Nature of Human Development
Theories of Human Development
Considerations for Outdoor Leadership
Selected References

Chapter 10. Facilitating Group Development
Group Development Theory
Process of Group Development
Expedition Behavior
Selected References

Chapter 11. Challenge Course Leadership
Challenge Course Profession
Challenge Course Programs
Key Leadership Functions
Leader Competencies
Selected References

Chapter 12. Teaching Strategies
Experiential Education
Outdoor Teaching Techniques
Lesson Planning
Selected References

Part IV. Resource and Program Management
Chapter 13. Parks and Protected Areas Management
General Concepts in Natural Resource Management
Federal Parks and Protected Areas Management
Wilderness and Backcountry Areas
State and Municipal Parks and Protected Areas Management
Using Parks and Protected Areas
Selected References

Chapter 14. Environmental Stewardship
Environmental Ethics
Ecological Literacy
Environmental Preservation Through Education
Leave No Trace
Selected References

Chapter 15. Program Management
Program Design
Administrative Duties
Program Evaluation
Selected References

Chapter 16. Safety and Risk Management
Practical Aspects of Risk Management
Legal Aspects of Risk Management
Process of Risk Management
Emergency Management
Judgment and Decision Making in Risk Management
Selected References

Chapter 17. Expedition Planning
Trip Purpose
Selected References

About the Authors


Textbook for introductory outdoor leadership courses at the undergrad level. Reference for outdoor recreation professionals. Resource for outdoor recreation and outdoor education faculty who teach outdoor leadership theory and practice in a variety of courses beyond outdoor leadership courses.